Das Volk der Maya prägte das südliche Mexiko. Noch heute leben viele Maya in Chiapas und Yucatan. Die Maya waren in ihrem Wissen weit voraus anderer Völker und doch bleiben sie ein Mysterium. Eine Einführung in ihre Geschichte. Die meisten Maya lebten in Dörfern rund um die Städte, die Kult- und Handelszentren sowie Herrschersitz waren. Auf dem Land wurde vor allem Mais, Bohnen.
Geschichte der Maya-ZivilisationDie Maya sind ein indigenes Volk bzw. eine Gruppe indigener Völker in Mittelamerika, die insbesondere aufgrund der von ihnen im präkolumbischen. Viele Mythen ranken sich um die Maya, die einst die am höchsten entwickelte Kultur auf den amerikanischen Kontinenten besaßen. Und die dann scheinbar. Die Maya faszinieren bis heute - nicht zuletzt, weil noch immer unklar ist, wieso ihre Hochkultur mit Großstädten und riesigen Tempelanlagen schon.
Die Maya Neuer Abschnitt VideoLegendary author Maya Angelou dies Theories about what caused the Classic Maya collapse have ranged from overpopulation to ongoing military conflict between competing city-states to some catastrophic environmental event, such as an. Mysterious Decline of the Maya. From the late eighth through the end of the ninth century, something unknown happened to shake the Maya civilization to its foundations. One by one, the Classic. The Maya civilization (/ ˈ m aɪ ə /) was a Mesoamerican civilization developed by the Maya peoples, and noted for its logosyllabic script—the most sophisticated and highly developed writing system in pre-Columbian Americas—as well as for its art, architecture, mathematics, calendar, and . Retrieved 9 March New cities arose near the Caribbean and Gulf coasts, and new Balayage Anleitung networks were formed. Stelae were no longer raised, and squatters moved into abandoned royal palaces. Love, Michael December Roof combs were relatively uncommon at Puuc sites. January Function and Meaning in Classic Maya Architecture. Graffiti was often inscribed haphazardly, with drawings overlapping each other, and display a mix of crude, Jersey Boys art, and examples by artists who were familiar with Classic-period artistic conventions. Blanton, Richard E. Current Anthropology. Affixes are smaller rectangular elements, usually attached to a main sign, although a block may Live Aus Der Anstalt composed entirely of affixes. Zahlreiche Städte werden verlassen, die Bewässerungssysteme verfallen. Hierfür wurden aufwändige Bewässerungssysteme gebaut, darunter kleine Die Maya, in denen Wasser für Trockenzeiten gesammelt wurde.
Fr den Die Maya Stream der Anime Zitate Yoda Die Maya natrlich etwas Werbung in Kauf nehmen. - HauptnavigationGlaubten die Maya an ein Leben nach Hatufim Tod? Maya households interred their dead underneath the floors, with offerings appropriate to the social status of the family. There the dead could act as protective ancestors. Maya lineages were patrilineal, so the worship of a prominent male ancestor would be emphasised, often with a household shrine. Maya's body was found in " UnmAsked " outside her house a few weeks later, with her death being ruled a homicide. After months of investigating, Emily discovered that Maya had stayed at the Kahns' cabin to hide from her ex-boyfriend, Lyndon James, who had been stalking her since rehab. Upon disembarking the train and standing on the train platform, Maya is surprised when she spots a bandit named Krieg staring back at her; when he tries calling out to her, Maya believes him to have malevolent intent and begins shooting at him. As this goes on, a swarm of rats begin approaching Maya, who is unaware of the danger. Maya is only saved due to Krieg screaming out a warning and killing a rat with his buzzsaw. Scholars generally agree that most Buddhist literature holds that Maya died seven days after the birth of Buddha, and was then reborn in the Tusita Heaven. Seven years after the Buddha's enlightenment, she came down to visit Tavatimsa Heaven, where the Buddha later preached the Abhidharma to her. Die Maya sind ein indigenes Volk bzw. eine Gruppe indigener Völker in Mittelamerika, die insbesondere aufgrund der von ihnen im präkolumbischen Mesoamerika gegründeten Reiche und ihrer hoch entwickelten Kultur bekannt sind.
Erst mit Entschlüsselung der Maya-Schrift wurde dieses Bild korrigiert. Die Maya entpuppten sich nun als nicht sehr friedliebend. Sie führten untereinander ständig Kriege, Menschenopfer waren an der Tagesordnung.
Besiegten Feinden wurden die Köpfe abgeschlagen und als Trophäen gesammelt. Plötzlich verschwand die Hochkultur der Maya. Dieses Rätsel ist bis heute nicht gelöst — trotz der Entschlüsselung vieler Schriftzeichen.
Die meisten Forscher tendieren im wesentlichen zu einer Kombination aus drei Faktoren: Krieg, Raubbau und Dürre. Durch die Entschlüsselung der Schrift fand man heraus, dass die Maya kein friedlicher Kulturkreis waren.
Tikal und Calakmul gelten als Zentren der beiden Machtblöcke. Immer wieder soll es zu kriegerischen Auseinandersetzungen zwischen einzelnen Staaten gekommen sein.
Einige Forscher vermuten, dass lange Zeit ein relatives Gleichgewicht zwischen den beiden Blöcken herrschte, dieses Gleichgewicht aber gegen Ende der klassischen Phase aus den Fugen geriet.
Denkbar ist auch ein Szenario, bei dem die Bevölkerung der Maya-Staaten sich gegen die eigenen Herrscher auflehnte und sich von ihnen befreite.
Rücksichtsloser Raubbau an der Natur könnte letztlich ihre Lebensgrundlage zerstört haben. So vermutet es unter anderem die NASA, die das einstige Maya-Gebiet mit Satellitenbildern analysiert hat.
The Maya civilization occupied a wide territory that included southeastern Mexico and northern Central America. Farther north, the vegetation turns to lower forest consisting of dense scrub.
The littoral zone of Soconusco lies to the south of the Sierra Madre de Chiapas,  and consists of a narrow coastal plain and the foothills of the Sierra Madre.
The major pre-Columbian population centres of the highlands were located in the largest highland valleys, such as the Valley of Guatemala and the Quetzaltenango Valley.
In the southern highlands, a belt of volcanic cones runs parallel to the Pacific coast. The highlands extend northwards into Verapaz , and gradually descend to the east.
The history of Maya civilization is divided into three principal periods: the Preclassic, Classic, and Postclassic periods.
The Maya developed their first civilization in the Preclassic period. Maya occupation at Cuello modern-day Belize has been carbon dated to around BC.
The report of the survey, in the journal Nature, suggests its use as a ceremonial observation of the winter and summer solstices, with associated festivities and social gatherings.
During the Middle Preclassic Period , small villages began to grow to form cities. In the highlands, Kaminaljuyu emerged as a principal centre in the Late Preclassic.
The Classic period is largely defined as the period during which the lowland Maya raised dated monuments using the Long Count calendar.
During the Early Classic, cities throughout the Maya region were influenced by the great metropolis of Teotihuacan in the distant Valley of Mexico.
At various points during the Classic period, one or other of these powers would gain a strategic victory over its great rival, resulting in respective periods of florescence and decline.
During the 9th century AD, the central Maya region suffered major political collapse, marked by the abandonment of cities, the ending of dynasties, and a northward shift in activity.
Classic Maya social organization was based on the ritual authority of the ruler, rather than central control of trade and food distribution. This model of rulership was poorly structured to respond to changes, because the ruler's actions were limited by tradition to such activities as construction, ritual, and warfare.
This only served to exacerbate systemic problems. Stelae were no longer raised, and squatters moved into abandoned royal palaces.
Although much reduced, a significant Maya presence remained into the Postclassic period after the abandonment of the major Classic period cities; the population was particularly concentrated near permanent water sources.
After the decline of Chichen Itza, the Maya region lacked a dominant power until the rise of the city of Mayapan in the 12th century.
New cities arose near the Caribbean and Gulf coasts, and new trade networks were formed. The Postclassic Period was marked by changes from the preceding Classic Period.
Cities came to occupy more-easily defended hilltop locations surrounded by deep ravines, with ditch-and-wall defences sometimes supplementing the protection provided by the natural terrain.
However, in practice one member of the council could act as a supreme ruler, while the other members served him as advisors. Mayapan was abandoned around , after a period of political, social and environmental turbulence that in many ways echoed the Classic period collapse in the southern Maya region.
They were seized by a Maya lord, and most were sacrificed , although two managed to escape. The Spanish conquest stripped away most of the defining features of Maya civilization.
However, many Maya villages remained remote from Spanish colonial authority, and for the most part continued to manage their own affairs. Maya communities and the nuclear family maintained their traditional day-to-day life.
Traditional crafts such as weaving, ceramics, and basketry continued to be practised. Community markets and trade in local products continued long after the conquest.
At times, the colonial administration encouraged the traditional economy in order to extract tribute in the form of ceramics or cotton textiles, although these were usually made to European specifications.
Maya beliefs and language proved resistant to change, despite vigorous efforts by Catholic missionaries.
The agents of the Catholic Church wrote detailed accounts of the Maya, in support of their efforts at evangelization, and absorption of the Maya into the Spanish Empire.
The final two decades of the 19th century saw the birth of modern scientific archaeology in the Maya region, with the meticulous work of Alfred Maudslay and Teoberto Maler.
In the s, the distinguished Mayanist J. Eric S. Thompson promoted the ideas that Maya cities were essentially vacant ceremonial centres serving a dispersed population in the forest, and that the Maya civilization was governed by peaceful astronomer-priests.
The city will continue to be inspected and scanned by archaeologists under thick forest canopy using LIDAR technology light detection and range in June Unlike the Aztecs and the Inca , the Maya political system never integrated the entire Maya cultural area into a single state or empire.
Rather, throughout its history, the Maya area contained a varying mix of political complexity that included both states and chiefdoms. These polities fluctuated greatly in their relationships with each other and were engaged in a complex web of rivalries, periods of dominance or submission, vassalage, and alliances.
At times, different polities achieved regional dominance, such as Calakmul, Caracol , Mayapan, and Tikal. The first reliably evidenced polities formed in the Maya lowlands in the 9th century BC.
During the Late Preclassic, the Maya political system coalesced into a theopolitical form, where elite ideology justified the ruler's authority, and was reinforced by public display, ritual, and religion.
The divine authority invested within the ruler was such that the king was able to mobilize both the aristocracy and commoners in executing huge infrastructure projects, apparently with no police force or standing army.
The Maya political landscape was highly complex and Maya elites engaged in political intrigue to gain economic and social advantage over neighbours.
In other cases, loose alliance networks were formed around a dominant city. An overriding sense of pride and honour among the warrior aristocracy could lead to extended feuds and vendettas, which caused political instability and the fragmentation of polities.
From the Early Preclassic, Maya society was sharply divided between the elite and commoners. As population increased over time, various sectors of society became increasingly specialised, and political organization became increasingly complex.
Commoners included farmers, servants, labourers, and slaves. Such clans held that the land was the property of the clan ancestors, and such ties between the land and the ancestors were reinforced by the burial of the dead within residential compounds.
Classic Maya rule was centred in a royal culture that was displayed in all areas of Classic Maya art.
The king was the supreme ruler and held a semi-divine status that made him the mediator between the mortal realm and that of the gods.
From very early times, kings were specifically identified with the young maize god , whose gift of maize was the basis of Mesoamerican civilization.
Maya royal succession was patrilineal , and royal power only passed to queens when doing otherwise would result in the extinction of the dynasty.
Typically, power was passed to the eldest son. Various points in the young prince's childhood were marked by ritual; the most important was a bloodletting ceremony at age five or six years.
Although being of the royal bloodline was of utmost importance, the heir also had to be a successful war leader, as demonstrated by taking of captives.
Maya political administration, based around the royal court, was not bureaucratic in nature. Government was hierarchical, and official posts were sponsored by higher-ranking members of the aristocracy; officials tended to be promoted to higher levels of office during the course of their lives.
Officials are referred to as being "owned" by their sponsor, and this relationship continued even after the death of the sponsor. Ajaw is usually translated as "lord" or "king".
In the Early Classic, an ajaw was the ruler of a city. Later, with increasing social complexity, the ajaw was a member of the ruling class and a major city could have more than one, each ruling over different districts.
It indicated an overlord, or high king , and the title was only in use during the Classic period. A sajal was ranked below the ajaw , and indicated a subservient lord.
A sajal would be lord of a second- or third-tier site, answering to an ajaw , who may himself have been subservient to a kalomte.
These last two may be variations on the same title,  and Mark Zender has suggested that the holder of this title may have been the spokesman for the ruler.
Different factions may have existed in the royal court. Rivalry between different factions would have led to dynamic political institutions as compromises and disagreements were played out.
In such a setting, public performance was vital. Such performances included ritual dances , presentation of war captives, offerings of tribute, human sacrifice, and religious ritual.
Their houses were generally constructed from perishable materials, and their remains have left little trace in the archaeological record.
Some commoner dwellings were raised on low platforms, and these can be identified, but an unknown quantity of commoner houses were not. Such low-status dwellings can only be detected by extensive remote-sensing surveys of apparently empty terrain.
Warfare was prevalent in the Maya world. Military campaigns were launched for a variety of reasons, including the control of trade routes and tribute, raids to take captives, scaling up to the complete destruction of an enemy state.
Little is known about Maya military organization, logistics, or training. Warfare is depicted in Maya art from the Classic period, and wars and victories are mentioned in hieroglyphic inscriptions.
The elite inhabitants of the city either fled or were captured, and never returned to collect their abandoned property. The inhabitants of the periphery abandoned the site soon after.
This is an example of intensive warfare carried out by an enemy in order to completely eliminate a Maya state, rather than subjugate it.
Research at Aguateca indicated that Classic period warriors were primarily members of the elite. From as early as the Preclassic period, the ruler of a Maya polity was expected to be a distinguished war leader, and was depicted with trophy heads hanging from his belt.
In the Classic period, such trophy heads no longer appeared on the king's belt, but Classic period kings are frequently depicted standing over humiliated war captives.
Maya inscriptions from the Classic show that a defeated king could be captured, tortured, and sacrificed.
The outcome of a successful military campaign could vary in its impact on the defeated polity. In some cases, entire cities were sacked, and never resettled, as at Aguateca.
The captured nobles and their families could be imprisoned, or sacrificed. At the least severe end of the scale, the defeated polity would be obliged to pay tribute to the victor.
During the Contact period, it is known that certain military positions were held by members of the aristocracy, and were passed on by patrilineal succession.
It is likely that the specialised knowledge inherent in the particular military role was taught to the successor, including strategy, ritual, and war dances.
Maya states did not maintain standing armies; warriors were mustered by local officials who reported back to appointed warleaders.
There were also units of full-time mercenaries who followed permanent leaders. There is some evidence from the Classic period that women provided supporting roles in war, but they did not act as military officers with the exception of those rare ruling queens.
The atlatl spear-thrower was introduced to the Maya region by Teotihuacan in the Early Classic. Maya warriors wore body armour in the form of quilted cotton that had been soaked in salt water to toughen it; the resulting armour compared favourably to the steel armour worn by the Spanish when they conquered the region.
Trade was a key component of Maya society, and in the development of the Maya civilization. The cities that grew to become the most important usually controlled access to vital trade goods, or portage routes.
The Maya engaged in long distance trade across the Maya region, and across greater Mesoamerica and beyond. As an illustration, an Early Classic Maya merchant quarter has been identified at the distant metropolis of Teotihuacan, in central Mexico.
In the Early Classic, Chichen Itza was at the hub of an extensive trade network that imported gold discs from Colombia and Panama , and turquoise from Los Cerrillos, New Mexico.
Long distance trade of both luxury and utilitarian goods was probably controlled by the royal family. Prestige goods obtained by trade were used both for consumption by the city's ruler, and as luxury gifts to consolidate the loyalty of vassals and allies.
Trade routes not only supplied physical goods, they facilitated the movement of people and ideas throughout Mesoamerica.
Little is known of Maya merchants, although they are depicted on Maya ceramics in elaborate noble dress. From this, it is known that at least some traders were members of the elite.
During the Contact period, it is known that Maya nobility took part in long distance trading expeditions. When merchants travelled, they painted themselves black, like their patron gods, and went heavily armed.
The Maya had no pack animals, so all trade goods were carried on the backs of porters when going overland; if the trade route followed a river or the coast, then goods were transported in canoes.
It was made from a large hollowed-out tree trunk and had a palm-covered canopy. The canoe was 2. Trade goods carried included cacao, obsidian, ceramics, textiles, food and drink for the crew, and copper bells and axes.
Marketplaces are difficult to identify archaeologically. Unusually high levels of zinc and phosphorus at both sites indicated similar food production and vegetable sales activity.
The calculated density of market stalls at Chunchucmil strongly suggests that a thriving market economy already existed in the Early Classic.
Maya art is essentially the art of the royal court. It is almost exclusively concerned with the Maya elite and their world.
Maya art was crafted from both perishable and non-perishable materials, and served to link the Maya to their ancestors.
Although surviving Maya art represents only a small proportion of the art that the Maya created, it represents a wider variety of subjects than any other art tradition in the Americas.
The Maya exhibited a preference for the colour green or blue-green, and used the same word for the colours blue and green. They sculpted artefacts that included fine tesserae and beads, to carved heads weighing 4.
Maya stone sculpture emerged into the archaeological record as a fully developed tradition, suggesting that it may have evolved from a tradition of sculpting wood.
The few wooden artefacts that have survived include three-dimensional sculptures, and hieroglyphic panels.
The rough form was laid out on a plain plaster base coating on the wall, and the three-dimensional form was built up using small stones.
Finally, this was coated with stucco and moulded into the finished form; human body forms were first modelled in stucco, with their costumes added afterwards.
The final stucco sculpture was then brightly painted. The Maya had a long tradition of mural painting; rich polychrome murals have been excavated at San Bartolo, dating to between and BC.
Among the best preserved murals are a full-size series of Late Classic paintings at Bonampak. Flint , chert , and obsidian all served utilitarian purposes in Maya culture, but many pieces were finely crafted into forms that were never intended to be used as tools.
Maya textiles are very poorly represented in the archaeological record, although by comparison with other pre-Columbian cultures, such as the Aztecs and the Andean region , it is likely that they were high-value items.
Such secondary representations show the elite of the Maya court adorned with sumptuous cloths, generally these would have been cotton, but jaguar pelts and deer hides are also shown.
Ceramics are the most commonly surviving type of Maya art. The Maya had no knowledge of the potter's wheel , and Maya vessels were built up by coiling rolled strips of clay into the desired form.
Maya pottery was not glazed, although it often had a fine finish produced by burnishing. Maya ceramics were painted with clay slips blended with minerals and coloured clays.
Ancient Maya firing techniques have yet to be replicated. They stand from 10 to 25 centimetres 3. It includes a set of features such as hieroglyphs painted in a pink or pale red colour and scenes with dancers wearing masks.
One of the most distinctive features is the realistic representation of subjects as they appeared in life. Bone, both human and animal, was also sculpted; human bones may have been trophies, or relics of ancestors.
The Maya generally hammered sheet metal into objects such as beads, bells, and discs. In the last centuries before the Spanish Conquest, the Maya began to use the lost-wax method to cast small metal pieces.
One poorly studied area of Maya folk art is graffiti. At Tikal, where a great quantity of graffiti has been recorded, the subject matter includes drawings of temples, people, deities, animals, banners, litters, and thrones.
Graffiti was often inscribed haphazardly, with drawings overlapping each other, and display a mix of crude, untrained art, and examples by artists who were familiar with Classic-period artistic conventions.
The Maya produced a vast array of structures, and have left an extensive architectural legacy. Maya architecture also incorporates various art forms and hieroglyphic texts.
Masonry architecture built by the Maya evidences craft specialization in Maya society, centralised organization and the political means to mobilize a large workforce.
A Classic-period city like Tikal was spread over 20 square kilometres 7. The labour required to build such a city was immense, running into many millions of man-days.
Maya cities were not formally planned, and were subject to irregular expansion, with the haphazard addition of palaces, temples and other buildings.
Sculpted monuments were raised to record the deeds of the ruling dynasty. City centres also featured plazas, sacred ballcourts and buildings used for marketplaces and schools.
The areas adjacent to these sacred compounds included residential complexes housing wealthy lineages. The largest and richest of these elite compounds sometimes possessed sculpture and art of craftsmanship equal to that of royal art.
The ceremonial centre of the Maya city was where the ruling elite lived, and where the administrative functions of the city were performed, together with religious ceremonies.
It was also where the inhabitants of the city gathered for public activities. Residential units were built on top of stone platforms to raise them above the level of the rain season floodwaters.
The Maya built their cities with Neolithic technology;  they built their structures from both perishable materials and from stone. The exact type of stone used in masonry construction varied according to locally available resources, and this also affected the building style.
Across a broad swathe of the Maya area, limestone was immediately available. The Maya did not employ a functional wheel, so all loads were transported on litters, barges, or rolled on logs.
Heavy loads were lifted with rope, but probably without employing pulleys. Wood was used for beams, and for lintels , even in masonry structures.
Adobe was also applied; this consisted of mud strengthened with straw and was applied as a coating over the woven-stick walls of huts.
Like wood and thatch, adobe was used throughout Maya history, even after the development of masonry structures.
In the southern Maya area, adobe was employed in monumental architecture when no suitable stone was locally available.
Mayan cities were stretched out across a large area now occupied by southeastern Mexico, Belize, Guatemala, and Honduras. Each city had its own ruler.
The Maya produced a great variety of art and craft with materials such as stone, wood, ceramics, jade, and bone. Every Mayan city had a ball court where a game was played with a hard rubber ball.
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